MoP 19: Mechanism, Coordination of Financing for the Protection of Tropical Forests in Central Africa

High-Level Roundtable on Financing: Development Banks, Climate/Biodiversity Funds and Carbon Market Mechanism on ''Fair Deal'' for the Protection of Central African Forests

Please download the following PDF Documents:

EN Side Event Finance Architecture Coordination Mechanism En

F Side Event Finance Architecture Coordination Mechanism Relecture


Welcome and introductory note: Honourable Dr. Christian Ruck, Goodwill Ambassador and CBFP Facilitator of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Panellists: Development Banks, Climate, Biodiversity and Forest Protection Funds: CAFI, AfDB, AFD, Winrock International, KFW

Moderator: Mr. Maxime Nzita Nganga Di Mavambu, Chef de Mission Technical Assistance Regional ECOFAC VI, CBFP Ex Co-Facilitator (Resource person)

Rapporteur: Jean Bakouma, Director of Conservation, WWF Congo Basin


Preliminary report.

The High-Level Meeting on the International Financial Mechanism for Biodiversity was held on 5-6 July 2022 in Libreville, Gabon. The session focused on four issues:

  • Exchange on instruments to improve financial coordination and access modalities.
  • Mechanisms, arrangements and conditions for the "Fair Deal" to ensure permanent and adequate climate and biodiversity finance and policy commitments for Central African ecosystems.
  • Discuss the frameworks, conditions and incentives for attracting private investment in sustainable development and forest protection.
  • Examine options for combining the carbon market on the one hand and public financing techniques and development assistance on the other.


The panel on 5 July brought together CAFI, AfDB, AFD and the EU, followed on 6 July by KFW and Winrock.

Donor actions in the Congo Basin forests are chaotic. In the Congo Basin there are 35 funding initiatives in total, including a need for coordination. The point is to reflect on the best coordination mechanism and also on the PES and their indicators; to examine which mechanisms are needed to secure the private sector.

Following this observation by all the panellists, some possible solutions were outlined.


Need for an integrated coordination mechanism. We need a fundraising manager. There is also the problem of the credit market. Streamlining the credit process is important. According to Philippe Mayeux, from the EU, this is not a new issue, and that is why OFAC was launched, and following this launch, big investors joined.

According to AFD, the solution lies at two levels on the programmatic level: There is a database of investors, but it is not well known. So, it requires a bit of proactivity for donors before committing themselves. Donors need to go and look at this database.

As far as CAFI is concerned, this coordination must take place within the college of donors. It is not just a database. Coordination takes a lot of time. If the CBFP wants to coordinate donors, resources must be made available, and therefore coordination groups must be set up in the capitals. For someone to take the lead on coordination, the coordination team needs a mandate.

For the AfDB, we need to recognize the responsibility of countries and partners, and we need to find a balance. The Bank needs to recognize that coordination has a cost and requires time and patience to coordinate. Therefore, donors must accept this cost.

The coordination must be done at two levels: at the regional level, and then at the national level because implementation takes place on the ground in the countries. At the AfDB, we think that this coordination must be carried out by the countries, but we must recognize that some countries do not have this capacity, hence the need to maintain a regional level of coordination to support countries lacking capacity. If coordination must take place, it should be carried out by the most appropriate regional institution combined with country coordination.

The coordination must be carried out throughout the project cycle. How do we fit into a coordinated approach at the operational level?

The first thing to do is to agree on what exists. Map and evaluate the funds. How do we take into account thematic coordination, the ADB can take the lead on some themes.

The question of the coordinator's mandate: complementarity, division, subsidiarity, comparative advantage.

For the AFD, a distinction must be made between operational and political coordination. The Glasgow "Pledge" provides guidelines for political coordination. CAFI is a coordination structure, as well as COMIFAC, and given the importance of CBFP, the college of donors should allow this coordination so that the Congo Basin's voice can be heard. The CAFI coordination model should also be explored.

Two possible options. For example, ICRAF has set up CIGAR, a hybrid coordination mechanism that enhances thematic and financial coordination.

The first option is to transform coordination into a secretariat.

Countries give a mandate, just as ECCAS gave a mandate to COMIFAC.

Coordination must also be part of the high-level political dialogue.

There are also other issues, for example:

Intact forests are not the objectives of REDD+ and yet if ecosystems (their services) are not paid for, we will not protect.

There is a perspective of policy dialogue in relation to payment for conservation efforts if ecosystems are to be protected.

Regarding the second question, it should be noted that some countries like Gabon wish to get other rewards apart from the REDD+ mechanism. Therefore, the issue is how to organize fair deal financing mechanisms.

CAFI completes bilateral flows and has worked on investment plans, there is a desire from donors to strengthen efficiency and increase verification capacity. There are interesting indications that deforestation is stabilizing. There are already many results, and we can do better in terms of monitoring and evaluation. CAFI's trajectory needs to be changed to focus on performance and results.

In Gabon we have a first deal, but the amount granted is insufficient. Measuring carbon is easier than measuring biodiversity. We need more results and more capacity.

How to link this to our intervention, CAFI's intervention.

First lesson: Data is super-important. The only country that has reliable data is Gabon. There are one or two countries which have submitted reference levels but there are still many countries missing. The priority is to build up the region to benefit from climate finance.


Maybe Central Africa needs a little bit different financing. All the issues on IFLs (Intact Forest Landscapes) allowing countries to remain with high forest cover must be taken into account by donors.

In countries where there is very little to reduce it is difficult, a simple concession increases deforestation. Countries need development but there is a need to demonstrate political commitment.

Another issue is absorption capacity. There are many partners, and we want to mobilize money, we need a lot of coordination and absorption capacity in the countries.

In conclusion, there are prerequisites: reliable data, verification, and political commitment.

China has developed contextualized standards.

Behind the "Fair Deal" is carbon finance.

At the AfDB, 40% of the Bank's commitments are climate finance, but the AfDB is a bit sceptical about the sustainability of some pledges. When we talk about PES (payment for ecosystem services) or carbon, what is important is the governance and transparency of the market. How to access it? Is it a specific market or a classic supply-demand market?

How can we ensure that states have the minimum capacity to operate in these carbon markets, whose capacity to operate is questionable? How can development aid be useful?

Can't we lighten the rules to facilitate access to climate finance?

Put rules before capacities in order to be able to negotiate with other actors.

If we can use official development assistance to strengthen States, it can help.

According to AFD, 3 points must be considered:

The first is the link between climate and biodiversity, e.g., LFIs are not taken into account in the climate, with potential drift due to the fact that biodiversity is not taken into account.

The second point is to refer to what Gabon is doing in terms of climate? Can we find a deviant model given the specificities of the CB? Develop specific Congo Basin models and reflect on the prevailing model.

The third point is to know whether we can imagine that this carbon finance is a better integrated element in macro-economic development models. Better integration of carbon finance would integrate the issue of the country's debt. It is therefore possible to broaden the spectrum of carbon finance and to increase its importance in development.


Link political and economic interest with development and debt.

However, the issue of biodiversity is difficult to track in terms of metrics.

As far as WCS is concerned, there is no incentive to protect IFLs. Nobody is paying for LFIs. WCS is developing an initiative which idea is to create a small portfolio of projects in order to demonstrate that projects related to the protection of LFIs exist. Pilot sites are needed, what is the unit that will be measured?


Second point

Coordination with private finance like Bezos must be revisited.

Strengthen the role of forests in climate finance and biodiversity finance.

We need to review the intervention frameworks at the national level. We need to start from what exists in countries. We should look for ways to actively manage forests apart from protected areas.

Finance for permanence. It's a way, but there are conditions to be met. We're going to start working with Gabon.

We have 8 to 10 years to change the trajectory and the IFLs, which is at least 30% of the solution. In the framework of the GEF, more than 300 million USD are dedicated to LFIs. There is interest in IFLs in countries with high forest cover and low deforestation. We can imagine a workshop under the GEF.

The drifting model: why we are forgetting about climate microfinance. The financing model that will reach the community level is inspired by microfinance, which should reach the communities, this could be a good model.


For the CBFP, the COMIFAC countries are struggling to access funding because all the measurement issues are not within the reach of these countries, so the countries are discouraged and want to give up. So why, on the basis of what we know about the countries' weak capacity, we cannot wonder about ways of supporting them?

Third question: what are the structures that can help the sub-region? What scenario can the sub-region adopt so that the private sector can mitigate the risks? How to combine private and public funds?



Projects must be financed with respect to the real economy.

There is the agro-industry or large-scale economic activities component. The simplest way is to have a project that can generate a return on investment, we need a zero-deforestation project that demonstrates the return on investment.

For AfDB, the forestry sector is a particular sector within a global economy. How can we manage the risks? We have instruments at the AfDB to manage risks. If we manage to put in place real intelligent incentives for the private sector. However, there are still questions to be asked:

How to define private sector taxation regimes in terms of public policy? Two aspects are public policies to accompany the private sector; for the private sector, how to finance? The AfDB is working on the industrialization of the wood sector in Gabon to promote 2nd and 3rd transformation.

For AFD: 2 points; AFD is fortunate to have a wide range of private sector financing. However, we note that overall, in the Congo Basin we are in a difficult institutional situation, absorption capacity is low, and few economic operators take up AFD financing, particularly in the banking sector. There is a need to improve the business climate and practices.

Second point: there is a tremendous potential for private sector investment in conservation. Example 1. The forestry sector, the AFD set up management plans in the Congo Basin 30 years ago, today they need to be renewed and so the States are going to recommit themselves for 30 years. Improving management plans in the Congo Basin.

The wood industry; yes indeed. The point is to know how to respond to the States in terms of agricultural demands? How can we support companies to move towards "deforestation-free" production, but there is also a question about small-scale agricultural producers. We need to offer them "deforestation-free" technical itineraries.

CAFI. We should distinguish between the role of the private sector in the carbon market and the role as an economic operator. For carbon, no one can pay if we cannot verify, so we need to develop carbon accounting.


Please download the following PDF Documents:

Go back

Partners News

Forest Declaration Assessment in the Congo Basin: Interview with Monique Catherine Bisseck Epse Yigbedek, regional coordinator of the African Women’s Network for Sustainable Development (REFADD) – FOREST DECLARATION

In 2022, the Forest Declaration Assessment included a regional pilot in the Congo Basin. Nine civil society organizations participated in this regional assessment, providing expertise, collecting data and contributing to the first regional Forest Declaration Assessment report that will be published in November 2022. This interview series highlights the work of these regional partners.

COP27 Summary report, 6–20 November 2022

Delegates gathered against an ominous backdrop of multiple crises: energy, cost of living, indebtedness, nature loss, and geopolitical tensions among major powers. But the need to act in the face of the climate crisis has never been clearer. Global average temperature rise is already 1.1°C. People around the world are experiencing the effects of climate change, from heatwaves and droughts to floods and superstorms. Only the wealthiest countries can (so far) cope. As Sherry Rehman, Minister of Climate Change, Pakistan, implored “Vulnerability shouldn’t be a death sentence.”

Deforestation Regulation: FLEGT’s achievements must be saved at all costs – FERN

FLEGT’s achievements must be saved at all costs, says Christian Mounzéo of Rencontre pour la paix et les droits de l’homme (RPDH), Republic of Congo. When the European Commission published its draft Regulation on deforestation-free products last November, the first reaction among Congo’s civil society was surprise. The second was concern.

EU deforestation regulation must strengthen the FLEGT process and producer countries’ own efforts to combat deforestation – FERN

The EU’s deforestation regulation must strengthen the FLEGT process and producer countries’ own efforts to combat deforestation, says Justin Kamga, Coordinator of Cameroonian NGO Forêts et Développement Rural (Foder).

Forest Governance 6 - November 2022 – FERN

In September, Fern’s civil society partners from the Congo Basin, West Africa and South East Asia came to Brussels to talk with policymakers about deforestation’s impact - on landscapes as well as people. More specifically, they shared their expertise on how the EU can tackle its responsibility for destroying forests around the world, and to highlight the potential ramifications of its proposed.

Just published - More is not enough: Central Africa and the proposed 30% protected and conserved areas by 2030

Here we summarize the discussions regarding how Central African countries could achieve the 30 × 30 target by addressing the following four matters. (1) Several financing mechanisms centred on forest carbon sequestration have started. Yet despite awareness of the importance of biodiversity and the fight against climate change, funding remains cruelly short of the required 10-fold scaling up. (2) Public–private partnerships, in which governments delegate the management of protected areas to private partners, have shown increased management efficiency and financing. Please download the Document....

Cop27 negotiators work against the clock to salvage a deal - THENATIONALNEWS

Ministers return to Egypt to lend their political weight to delegates wrestling with key issues. About 200 nations from around the globe continued to chase a deal at the Cop27 summit in Egypt that will help in the struggle to save the planet from climate change. But despite hurdles, small but significant signs surfaced that an agreement at the UN summit remained possible.

Australia told to end new fossil fuel subsidies if it wants Pacific support to host climate summit –THE GUARDIAN

Vanuatu’s climate change minister says Pacific support for Australian bid should be conditional. Australia must stop subsidising new fossil fuel developments if it is to win a key Pacific nation’s support for its plan to co-host a major UN climate summit in 2026.

Al Gore and High-Level Speakers: Transparency and Accountability Underpin Effective Climate Action - unfccc

UN Climate Change News, 14 November 2022 – Two weeks of transparency events kicked off at COP27 in Egypt last week under the banner “Together4Transparency”. With discussions ranging from the need for reliable greenhouse gas emissions estimates accessible to all to the role that information plays in reducing risks and uncertainties in order to attract financial support for action, the series of events addresses the full range of actors and issues related to transparency.

Egypt, US Announce over $150 Million to Aid Africa’s Adaptation to Climate Change

Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, 11 November 2022 – At launch events held today at COP27 in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, a major package of support of over USD $150 million for adaptation was launched.  The package was announced at a special session on "Advancing Adaptation Action in Africa" co-hosted by H.E. Sameh Shoukry, COP27 President, and United States Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, John Kerry.   

Adaptation and Agriculture Thematic Day at COP27 Focuses on How the World Will Feed 8 Billion – COP27

Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, 12 November 2022 – The Adaptation and Agriculture thematic day at COP27 focused on how the world will feed eight billion people. Throughout the day, a series of sessions and initiatives shed light on pathways forward on adaptation and climate resilient agriculture.

COP27 Daily report for 12 November 2022

The first week of the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference concluded with the closing plenaries of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI). Substantive conclusions were adopted on a limited number of issues, mostly related to the consideration of reports by constituted bodies and to reporting. On many issues, only procedural conclusions were adopted which noted that further work is required to finalize the relevant decisions.

COP27: Forest and Climate Leaders’ Partnership (FCLP) is launched!

World Leaders Launch Forests and Climate Leaders’ Partnership to accelerate momentum to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030 - bringing the total funds committed to $24,5 bn  November 7, 2022 at COP27 - 26 countries, including some Central African countries and the European Union – which together account for over 33% of the world’s forests and nearly 60% of the world’s GDP launch the Forest and Climate Leaders’ Partnership (FCLP).

COP27: Daily report for 7 November 2022

Heads of State and Government and their entourages took over the conference venue on the second day of the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference. With their presence, leaders aimed to signal sustained momentum on climate action. In parallel, intergovernmental negotiations got up to speed. Discussions on some agenda items, such as those related to cooperative approaches under the Paris Agreement (Article 6.2), drew such crowds that they surpassed room capacity. Please download the Document....

COP27- Empowering a Climate-Resilient Africa for the 21st Century: Articulating vision and opportunity - IISD

At what is being referred to as the "African COP," political, industry, and civil society leaders voiced strong condemnations of shortcomings in adaptation financing for Africa. Against a backdrop of global economic slowdown and political instability, the African continent is making headway in designing initiatives to overcome the worst impact of climate change. Hosted by Mokgweetsi Masisi, President of Botswana, and organized by the United Nations Science-Policy-Business Forum on the Environment (SPBF), this high-level event called for greater leadership and renewed international cooperation to support African-led adaptation efforts.

World Leaders Launch Forests and Climate Leaders’ Partnership to accelerate momentum to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030 -UK

Today at COP27 world leaders will launch the Forests and Climate Leaders’ Partnership (FCLP), committing to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030 in the fight against climate change and as promised in the Glasgow Climate Pact.

Congo Basin Pledge: 2021 Report

At COP26 in Glasgow (2021) twelve donors committed to a collective Congo Basin pledge of at least US$1.5 billion of financing between 2021 and 2025. Over the course of 2021, the donors have collectively provided over $508 million towards the Congo Basin Pledge, with just under $311 million disbursed in the region so far. The report provides more detail on the collective spend, including case studies. Please download the 2021 report...

The day of the ECCAS at the COP 27

On the sidelines of this international climate governance conference, the Commission of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), gathering 11 member states1, is organizing today, November 7, 2022, at the DRC Pavilion (P80), from 12:30 pm the day of the ECCAS at COP 27, under the Leadership of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), country presiding over this instrument of regional integration. Please download the press release of the day...

CPD Sameh Shoukry’s open letter to parties and observers’ days before COP27

We are five days from the start of the 2022 UN Climate Change Conference (COP27). As COP President, Egypt is proud to host more than 45,000 registered COP27 participants representing Parties, UN and regional organizations, businesses, the scientific community, indigenous and local communities and civil society to jointly enhance and accelerate the implementation of climate action and follow up on our collective commitments and pledges. We hope that the welcoming people and natural beauty of Sharm El Sheikh can provide some inspiration for us to take the very needed meaningful steps to fight for the people and planet and save lives and livelihoods.

World Comes Together for Implementation at Sharm El Sheikh - COP27

Cairo, Egypt - November 2022 – COP27, the 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference, hosted by Egypt in Sharm El Sheikh will see delegates from around the world participate in the annual climate change negotiations. With over 40,000 estimated attendees, the summit is expected to host one of the largest number of participants in the annual global climate conference, which is running from November 6 to 18 in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

GABON: The country obtains carbon credit certification from the UNFCCC - Environnementales

Gabon has just been certified for carbon credit by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The government welcomes a step forward for the marketing of carbon credits in Gabon. On Friday 7 October 2022, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) published́ its report on the technical analysis of Gabon’s activities over the period 2010-2018 on reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, as well as conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+).

How far has the talk walked? Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use – CIFOR

Experts agree there has been “some movement” but inclusivity, political goodwill and resources are still needed. When leaders from 141 countries signed the Glasgow Declaration on Forests and Land Use, a critical step had been made in recognizing forests as critical in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. However, what will it take to achieve these commitments? How have governments “walked the talk” so far and what support is needed to reach the six key efforts declared by the world leaders?

Shared peatland brings RoC and DRC closer on climate action – CIFOR

Previously unrecognized, the Congo Basin’s Cuvette Centrale is now seen as an important carbon sink and the world’s largest undisturbed tropical peatland. Safeguarding this newfound treasure means actors on both sides of the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Republic of the Congo (RoC) will need to work together to anticipate threats and govern proactively.

Climate Finance: Will it Make or Break Forest Protection and Forest Peoples’ Rights?

Solving climate change without protecting forests and ending deforestation is an impossible task. The world forests provide important ecosystemic and livelihood services and are more than a store of carbon which needs protecting – they are also actively taking it up. By recent scientific estimates, forests absorb one-quarter of global fossil fuel emissions from the atmosphere every year.